Cannabis Prohibition Is A Leading Cause Of Premature Death

Cannabis is one of the very few drugs that does not cause death. But can use of cannabis also prevent premature death? A study out of Indiana, Cannabis use is associated with a substantial reduction in premature deaths in the United States, shows just that!

In fact, cannabis prohibition turns out to be a leading cause of death in the USA.

The study’s author, Thomas M. Clark is Professor and Chair of Department of Biology at Indiana University South Bend, His meta-analysis found:

Cannabis use is associated with decreased rates of

obesity,

diabetes mellitus,

mortality from traumatic brain injury,

use of alcohol and prescription drugs,

driving fatalities, and

opioid overdose deaths.

Obesity threatens human well-being across the planet. Especially in the USA, but also now world wide, this plague of pounds drives degenerative diseases and health care costs. Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammation, inflicting insidious damage daily. Fat cells displace organs and produce cellular toxins. Obesity kills at least one out of eight Americans.

Diabetes is the key metabolic disease killing Americans. Dr. Clark writes:

Evidence strongly supports reduced obesity and diabetes mellitus in people who use Cannabis. The most common finding of studies to date have shown lower BMI, waist circumference, or rates of obesity in Cannabis users.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an all-too-frequent cause of premature death, but a condition responsive to medical marijuana. Clark notes:

Cannabinoids have well known neuroprotective effects, reducing damage from excitotoxicity, Ca++  influx, free radical formation, and neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI), ischemia, and neurotoxins.

Dr. Clark reports lowered rates of premature death for alcohol and opioid addiction and death in cannabis users, reduced rates of dangerous deaths, and lives saved from cancer.

Clark concludes,

Conclusions: Cannabis use prevents thousands of premature deaths each year, and Cannabis prohibition is revealed as a major cause of premature death in the U.S.

Premature death reduction is basic to harm reduction, the strategy smart governments are using to address drug problems. At the same time, the USA is now poised to renew its decade-long war on marijuana, a drug nearly harmless while hugely helpful at reducing premature death.

Prohibition of access to medical cannabis is a violation of human rights. Such prohibition is a moral evil, not only because it subjects people from arbitrary abuse from the state, but also because it denies them a crucially effective medication, leading to premature death.

Mind Over Meds: Dr. Andrew Weil’s New Book

MindOverMed“How many medications do you take? How about your parents? Your children?” These are just a few of the helpful questions asked by Integrative Medicine pioneer Dr. Andrew Weil. He addresses America’s huge problem of over-medication, appropriate use of medications, preventive self-care, and also alternatives to pharmaceutical drugs, in his new book, Mind Over Meds. Subtitled, Know When Drugs Are Necessary, When Alternatives Are Better – And When To Let Your Body Heal On Its Own.

Dr. Weil, and many others are alarmed by America’s overmedication and by the disabilities and deaths caused by improper use of pharmaceutical drugs. Americans now take ten times the medications they did in 1950. The doctor reminds us that most conditions get better by themselves and advocates a conservative approach to using medical care.

Dr. Weil gets to the central aspects of well-being immediately. Instead of the all-too-common short appointment ending with a prescription, he immediately looks at nutrition, exercise, and stress reduction. Breathing is one of his first concerns, typically ignored, except for a quick listen to the lungs, in a normal physical exam. Our behaviors and choices about food, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors are the primary bases of personal well-being. Appropriately, he is big on exercise:

Physical activity, if done prudently, is good for practically all health issues.

Nutrition is given equal importance, along with skills to reduce stress..

When I write a treatment plan for a patient, my first recommendations always concern diet: what not to eat, what to eat more of, how to change eating habits to improve health. As a primary treatment strategy, dietary change can be remarkably effective.

When faced with an illness, Dr. Weil encourages an attitude of self-reliance, prudent use of medical care, especially pharmaceuticals, and exploration of alternative medications. For example, upon catching a common cold, a bad outcome would be to quickly visit the doctor, pressuring him or her for gut-disrupting antibiotics, and infecting other at the medical office with your cold virus in the process.

Antibiotics are useless for colds (caused by viruses which antibiotics don’t) and for many other conditions for which they are over-prescribed. So important is this antibiotic problem that Weil begins his audit of commonly used drugs with these (sometimes lifesaving) pharmaceuticals. He also clarifies when such pharmaceutical drugs are totally appropriate. Other chapters discuss different drugs and people taking them, such as the aging and children.

One area the book slightly disappoints was the scant discussion of medical cannabis for substituting off many of these medications, and for providing effective treatments where pharmaceutical meds do not.

One the whole, this book should be must read for anyone before they use the medical care system, and especially before agreeing to a course of treatment with pharmaceuticals. Any patient will be tremendously empowered, and will be far safer, if they have this excellent knowledge base of how and how not to use medical care.

 

 

Your Brain On Exercise: Rewarded With Testosterone and New Neurons

3d rendered illustration - hippocampus

Hippocampus (yellow) deep in the brain

More proof that exercise is good for your brain as well as your body. Recent Japanese research shows that exercise such as jogging floods your brain with testosterone and spurs growth in specific memory areas, the important hippocampus region.

Exercise is little less than a magic elixir for our health. It is not quite magic, though, in that we still have to earn these health rewards by actively exercising our bodies. When we do exercise by moving our bodies under our own power, especially moving them quickly so we breathe hard and start to sweat, astounding benefits take place in our bodies and brains.

A very long list of health benefits of exercise need not be repeated here. Most of the lifestyle related maladies most that strike down people in modern society stem, in good part, from insufficient exercise. Cardiovascular and strength exercises provide preventative, curative and restorative solutions to many of our modern health maladies.  All that and they make you strong and feel great too!

The Japanese research would indicate that as least part of the elation often felt during and after exercise may be explained by the increases in testosterone in the brain. Testosterone is called the “male hormone” and indeed it is associated with the gonads (and elsewhere) and occurs at levels around eight times higher in male than female animals, including humans. But all people produce testosterone. Not unlike the runner’s high, which has been associated with endorphins and endocannabinoids produced during exercise, testosterone provides an energized, pleasant feeling. All these enjoyable effects associated with exercise may provide evolutionary benefit, that is, rewarding physical activity that might help feed the family by encouraging hunting or other survival activity.

More than just feeling good, though, this new research shows that the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) produced causes actual new brain cell growth in the area we need it most, the hippocampus, deep down in our brains. This vital area is associated with memory and benefits greatly from new neurons coming on-line. A hippocampus refreshed by these new neurons can help retain memory, promote new learning, protect from depression, and generally help the brain operate more efficiently. DHT, earned through exercise, is necessary for this rejuvenating neurogenesis.

Do yourself and your brain a favor. Walk a lot, at least 10,000 steps a day. Try to raise your heart rate and break into a sweat for at least a few minutes each day.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 7;109(32):13100-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210023109. Epub 2012 Jul 17.

Mild exercise increases dihydrotestosterone in hippocampus providing evidence for androgenic mediation of neurogenesis.

Memory Improvements from Exercise use Endocannabinoid System!

Hippocampus Word CLoud - © intheskies - Fotolia.com

Hippocampus Word Cloud – © intheskies – Fotolia.com

Exercise has been long known to be among the few things that can help memory. In physiological terms, “physical exercise has positive effects on cognitive functions and hippocampal plasticity.”  Plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to change from experience and is  closely related to learning and memory.  The hippocampus is a deep brain structure closely tied with memory, so hippocampal plasticity is a good thing, but brain scientist were not sure how exercise exerted these positive changes. A likely answer has been published by Brazilian researchers in the journal Hippocampus, and has to do with positive effects exercise has on the brain and memory stem from its simulation of the endocannabinoid system. The research paper is entitled “A role for the endocannabinoid system in exercise-induced spatial memory enhancement in mice.”

The endocannabinoid system is fairly recently discovered and major regulatory system in humans and other animals. The system was first discovered in relation to cannabis, as protein receptors on cell membranes turned out the be the target of marijuana and the reason for its medical and psychoactive effects. The CB1 receptor is activated by THC in cannabis and was the focus of study is this research. They conclude, “Our results suggest that, at least in part, the promnesic effect of the exercise is dependent of CB1 receptor activation and is mediated by BDNF.” Promnesic refers to memory promoting as is the opposite of amnesic. BDNF is brain-derived neurotropic factor, a secreted protein that helps support and grow brain cells.

 

 

Your Brain on CBD: Neurogenesis and Brain Growth!

Neurogenesis in hippocampus

© Sebastian Kaulitzki – Fotolia.com

We rightfully mourn the loss of brain cells, neurons, as we age. As they die we lose memories and capabilities – even our personalities. We are only as robust as our brains, composed mainly of neurons. Formerly, it was thought the as adults we already have all the brain cells we will ever have, and the path was only downward as we lose neurons to stress, alcohol and aging. Happily, this bleak picture was changed when neuroscientists discovered that, under certain conditions, even adult brains can grow new neurons, neurogenesis. New neurons refresh and rejuvenate, and lift mood.

The principal area where neurogenesis can take place is in the hippocampus, a dual area deep within the brain. Although small, hippocampal health appears important to memory and brain organization. It can be damaged. Excess alcohol and many drugs can cause it to lose neurons and shrink, resulting in fading memories and depression.

On the other hand, several conditions seem to spur brain growth. Physical exercise is one: rigorous physical activity spurs the growth of new neurons in the hippocampus, most probably providing a rejuvenating effect and boosting memory. Physical activity is crucial in keeping old brains young. Your hippocampal health is one of dozens of great reasons to exercise every day of your life.

Certain anti-depressant drugs are also associated with neurogenesis.  Indeed, it is now thought that the depression relieving effects of SRIs- serotonin reuptake inhibitors – might have more to do with neurogenesis than increasing serotonin levels. Some now believe that the depression lifting effects of these drugs are due to new, young brain cells refreshing the hippocampus.

In 1995 it was reported that cannabinoids, too, can spur neurogenesis. Cannabinoids are molecules from three different sources: 1) Our body produces endocannabinoids that activate our endocannabinoid regulatory systems, pricipally anandamide and 2-AG. 2) Phytocannabinoids come from the plant Cannabis Sativa, AKA marijuana. THC is the best known and produces the psychoactive and some of the medicinal effects of cannabis.  3) Cannabinoids can also be synthesized in the lab.

A Canadian research group reported that Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects. This research used a synthetic cannabinoid to activate the same CB1 receptors activated by the plant cannabinoid THC. They attributed the anxiety-relieving and depression-lifting effects of long-term treatment were “likely via promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis.”

Another new study has shown that the cannabinoid CBD from cannabis also promotes neurogenesis. Researchers from the Complutense University in Madrid, along with Brazilian researchers found that CBD relieved stress in mice and it did so by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus. They concluded, the “anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: involvement of the endocannabinoid system.”

CBD, Cannabidiol is an exceedingly interesting molecule, brimming with beneficial health effects. It is one of over 60 cannabinoids produced by the hemp plant Cannabis Sativa. Unlike the better known THC, CBD is not psychoactive, although it may modulate the effects of THC. Both cannabinoid molecules interact, in different ways, with our cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. The medical potential of CBD has been inadequately studied because of the idiotic illegality of Cannabis Sativa. Even so, the known health effects are impressive: Like THC, CBD is an antioxidant with neuroprotective properties. Like THC, CBD is anti-inflammatory. It relieves pain.  CBD appears to have anti-tumor properties.

So on top of all these medical benefits, CBD may well contribute to neurogenesis, brain rejuvenation and growth! What’s not to like? Well, the DEA does not like these medical benefits and does not allow research on them because it likes the draconian Schedule I – no medical benefits – of cannabis to extend the lucrative war on drugs. This bureaucratic turf battle keeps the DEA in the dough but denies Americans the health-giving, even life-saving benefits of medical cannabis, even non-psychoactive CBD-dominant strains.

Americans should demand access to natural plant molecules such as CBD, along with THC, THCV and dozens of other medical cannabinoids. CBD and these other cannabinoids can help prevent many maladies, can treat dozens of diseases and can provide palliative comfort to the rest.  Along with refreshing and growing our very brains with neurogenesis. If Americans gain their medical freedom with a down-grading of cannabis from ridiculous Schedule I tyranny, the planet’s other six billion people would also gain greater access. Study of this remarkable  plant cannabinoid would blossom world-wide as anti-cannabis doctrine crumbles in the face of huge medical and health benefits.

Copyright © 2013 Don Fitch

THCV: A Marijuana Cannabinoid for Weight Loss and Diabetes Prevention?

Fotolia

Fotolia

The cannabis sativa plant, marijuana, produces dozens of cannabinoids. The THC cannabinoid that elicits psychoactivity, and numerous medical benefits, is but one of over 60 phyto (plant-based) cannabinoids found in cannabis. Cannabidiol or CBD, is a second, now under intense study for its anti-inflammatory and other health properties. Another of these phytocannabinoids is  tetrahydrocannabivarin or THCV. Cannabis strains favoring this cannabinoid might serve as tools for weight loss and preventing diabetes.

Medical research on cannabinoids has flourished in recent years and most research points to health positive effects of medical cannabis for a wide range of conditions. Cannabis has been found to be neuroprotective, anti-painantioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatoryanti-tumor as well as cardioprotective. One area, though, where research is less positive is in the metabolic effects of cannabinoid receptor activation. Activation of the endocannabinoid regulatory system, an effect of THC and human endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG, seemed to correlate with some health-negative metabolic conditions. Conversely, blockage of this activation with synthetic cannabinoid antagonists (e.g. rimonabant) correlated with health positive cardio-metabolic changes. As listed by the European RIO study, some positive changes induced by blocking CB1 receptors include positive changes in body weight, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin, fasting insulin and insulin resistance.

Because of these effects on the endocannabinoid system, it has long been assumed that cannabis consumption would tend to cause weight gain. These metabolic effects and enhanced eating because of amplified taste, i.e. “munchie effects” would theoretically make marijuana users ravenous and fat. To the surprise of many, several studies have now found that cannabis users are actually less fat than their abstaining counterparts. As reported here, marijuana users tend to be less obese and less diabetic than non-users.  Their waists were smaller. These real life observations seem to contradict the supposed munchie effect and predicted effects of CB1 activation. Such health positive indication by cannabis users may even be amplified with development of THCV-heavy cannabis weight loss products e.g. edibles for appetite suppression.

For some people eating does often follow use of THC-heavy marijuana.  Indeed, important medical uses of cannabis include treatment of the wasting syndrome and lack of appetite from chemotherapy. But by no means does everyone using cannabis each time become ravenous. Depending on the person, the setting and the cannabis, consuming cannabis is often a prelude to cardiovascular exercise, not gluttonous indolence. As much as taste enjoyment is enhanced by cannabis for some, for others (or for the same people at other times.) the sensory enjoyment of exercise is enhanced. With cannabis, activities like running can hurt less and feels better, even ecstatic. Might a higher THCV-content cannabis both dampen appetite and create an energetic cannabis experience encouraging exercise?

For a short time in 2005 and 2006, it looked this CB1 receptor antagonist, the synthetic cannabinoid rimonabant, might be a powerful anti-obesity drug. Problems arose for this promising weight loss and metabolic drug, though, from its blockage of the endocannabinoid system. Ananadamide and THC are blissful, because they activate this system. Blockage of the system, it seems, is anti-blissful, with feelings of anxiety and depression common. Also worrisome was blockage of the positive health effects of medical cannabis, e.g. glaucoma reduction and pain relief. For example, cannabis is an anti-nausea drug offering immense relief to chemotherapy patients. And indeed, nausea was another of the symptoms bothering those taking this synthetic “anti-marijuana.” Depression and nausea are probably not part of an effective weigh loss program.

After approval in Europe and other countries, rimonabant was rejected by the FDA. It has since lost favor in Europe. An obese world lost a potentially useful weight control product. Could there be other options? As it turns out one of the phyto-cannabinoids from the cannabis plants, THCV, may have potential. Although its interactions with THC, other cannabinoids and the cannabinoid receptor system are complex, recent research found that THCV is a CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonist. Seemingly, this would make for “downer cannabis,” blocking the CB1 receptors that THC activate, but that does not seem to be the case. It is possible THCV intensive cannabis might offer the appetite reduction and  and positive cardiometabolic effects of Rimonabant without the negatives of the synthetic drug. This is especially true when the THCV is mixed, with other cannabinoids, as found in cannabis. A cannabis with high THCV and low or moderate THC and CBD might be ideal.

Seminal cannabis researcher and discoverer of THC, Raphael Mechoulam, in British Journal of Pharmacology in 2005, discussed the apparent unique properties and posed several research questions. He notes, as has Scottish researcher Roger G. Pertwee, that THCV content can be very high in hashish from Pakistan. Despite these high levels of the supposed CB1 receptor antagonist THCV, Pakistani hashish has no apparent  “downer” aspect depressing the user. Perhaps this is due to the presence of the other 60 cannabinoids.

THCV’s appetite-reducing and fat loss potential await studies, as do new cannabis cultivars enhancing this cannabinoid. Except, of course, no studies on the medical potential of cannabis are allowed in the USA by the DEA.  Americans, so in need of useful weight loss products, will have to wait until the research is done in places like Israel, Spain and Portugal.

Copyright © 2013 Don Fitch

Your brain on exercise: rewarded with dopamine by cannabinoid receptors.

Lack of enough physical activity is a huge problem in the obesity-plagued modern world. With much of physical activity removed from work and daily life, to be fit and not obese, we have to exercise for extended periods of time, in activities like jogging, fast walking, bike riding and other aerobic exercise. Our willingness to exercise in this way is really a cornerstone of our health, and our society’s health. Probably more than anything single factor, our health care system would benefit from people getting more exercise. New research now reports the crucial role of cannabinoid receptors and our endocannabinoid regulatory system in our motivation to keep moving.

Research out of France, reported in Biological Psychiatry shows how small protein cannabinoid receptors operating in the walls of nerve cells in the  brain reward exercise. This unlocks a key to voluntary exercise, and perhaps ways to promote it.  Also reported in ScienceDaily, the research reported that the endocannabinoid system, especially CB1 receptors in certain parts of the brain, reward our bodies and minds with pleasurable sensations. This research was with mice, not humans, but the physiology and responses are very similar. Lack (or blockage) of these receptors caused a sharp drop in the amount of exercise control mice were willing to do.

For us to continue to exercise, rather than stopping, depends a lot on how we feel. If tired and uncomfortable we might well stop; if exhilarated and “in the zone,” we continue. How we feel during exercise, it turns out, depends much on how much of the feel-good substance, dopamine, our brains produce and receive.  Our dopamine levels, this research shows, are controlled in part by our endocannabinoid systems and CB1 receptors in certain parts of the brain. CB1 receptors are activated by our natural endocannabinoids such as anandamide. They also fit like lock and key and are activated by plant cannabinoids, especially THC, from cannabis.

Dopamine is an organic chemical produced in several areas of the brain. Many brain functions involve dopamine, especially learning, voluntary movement, reward and motivation. We feel higher dopamine levels as enjoyment and are rewarded by the experience, making us want to continue or repeat. Drugs like cocaine increase and prolong dopamine levels. The Bordeaux, France researchers studied dopamine producing nerve cells in the brain’s ventral tegmental area (VTA) known to play an important role in motivation. By working with mice with CB1 receptors present or absent or blocked, they found marked difference in how much running wheel time the rodents would spend.

The researchers had previously found “that the endogenous stimulation of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors is a prerequisite for voluntary running in mice,” but did not understand the mechanisms. In experiments involving “in vivo electrophysiology, the consequences of wheel running on VTA dopamine (DA) neuronal activity” on mice with combinations of CB1 blockage and GABA blockage. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces levels of dopamine produced by other neurons. Cannabinoid receptor activation in GABA neurons inhibits this inhibitory effect on dopamine. This “inhibition of inhibition” results in an increased level of dopamine produced in this motivation area of the brain.

Exercise promotes endocannabinoid activation of CB1 receptors and this activation encourages continued exercise. If we exercise enough to allow them, our bodies reward us for the physical activities that are so good for us.

Not mentioned in this research, the “runner’s high” is likely a function of endocannabinoids, along with the endorphins. For earlier evidence of the runner’s high association with the endocannabinoid system check Runner’s high – your body rewarding exercise.

Runner’s high – your body rewarding exercise.

Runners have long noted that euphoria and sense of well-being are often felt during and after a hard run. Indeed, this mental and physical reward is the reason many runners exercise. The ability to run quickly and for long distance is obviously an important evolutionary advantage, as in the capability  to catch food or not.

The “high” experienced by runners and others exercising vigorously has long been explained by endorphins and the opioid receptor system. But since this explanation came the discovery of the endocannabinoid (eCB) regulatory system consisting of receptors on nerve and other cells and natural cannabinoids (CBs) that activate these receptors,. For nearly a decade many have thought that this system better explains the mental lift and euphoria people often feel during and after robust exercise.

Now a study in the Journal of Experimental Biology, “Wired to run: exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling in humans and cursorial mammals with implications for the ‘runner’s high“,  expands on the evolutionary importance of this pleasurable signalling.  The term “cursorial” means well adapted to running. Human being and dogs are cursorial, ferrets, not so much. In this research, intense exercise dramatically raised the levels of endocannabinoids in humans and dogs, in ferrets, not so much. The researchers concluded, “Thus, a neurobiological reward for endurance exercise may explain why humans and other cursorial mammals habitually engage in aerobic exercise despite the higher associated energy costs and injury risks, and why non-cursorial mammals avoid such locomotor behaviors.

This “neurobiological reward” occurs when your body’s own eCB, anandamide, activates cannabinoid receptors CB1 on nerve cells in brain and body.  Anandamide (AEA) and similar 2-AG, activate these nerve receptors in much the same way as does the plant cannabinoid THC, from the plant cannabis sativa. Activation of CB1 receptors by any of these cannabinoids provides a euphoric effect. As the release of anandamide is stimulated by intensive exercise such as running, your body provides a rewarding euphoria for a hard run or workout.

Regrettably perhaps, achieving this runner’s high requires fairly robust levels of exercise. Seemingly we must “pay for” the experience with quite hard physical labor; walking did not increase CB levels in this study. But don’t let that discourage you from walking; it offers dozens of other rewards, even health itself.

Apple-icious – An apple a day can help keep you trim, strong and young.

Apples offer fairly amazing health benefits. As folk wisdom, the term, “an apple a day keeps the doctor away,” has long reflected this fact, but modern science now fills in intriguing details. As it turns out, that apple a day is boosting your health by keeping you lean, by making you stronger and by slowing aging.

The apple can serve as a centerpiece of a weight control regimen. That’s right, eating apples can be a powerful cornerstone in helping conquer obesity! Doing so does not involve eating just apples; just be sure to eat one a day! Actually, eating 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables of various types each day is nutritionally wise and hugely beneficial to long term weight control. These low-calorie-density, high-nutrient-density plant foods fill you up. They also provide the phytochemicals and other nutritious molecules utterly missing in typical fast food meals. By making part of this plant-heavy diet, an apple a day, you add a powerful to help you lose weight and maintain weight loss. Although the apple theoretically adds about 100 calories per day to your diet, in practice it will prevent your intake of far more calories. You may, in fact, balk at eating an apple a day. There are many varieties of great apples out there, experiment. Fujis are a favorite for many.

Some of the apple’s capability to cause loss of fat may come from its facility to build muscles. New studies show that the ursolic acid in the apple peel helps prevent muscle atrophy. Loss of muscle causes disability and loss of mobility in old age.  Strong elders function a much higher levels. The presence of muscles serve as calorie furnaces to help burn energy from fat around the clock. In addition, muscles provide the personal mobility for walking, jogging or other activities that so burn calories and promote vitality.

Much of the apple’s nutritional “goodie” comes from the peel. Most of the apple’s fiber is found in the skin.  Such fiber is lacking in obesogenic (obesity-causing) diets, such as those eaten by overweight Americans. Fiber promotes satiety, feeling full, the key in signalling to stop us eating. Fiber rich meals and snacks are eaten more slowly, and help prevent other eating episodes by dimming hunger between meals. Fibrous foods are generally nutrient dense but lean in calories. Apple skin offers more than fiber however. With ursolic acid, apple skin helps boost muscle growth, mass and strength.

The peel can also present a danger as it may contain pesticides. All apples should be washed before being eaten. Buying organic apples free of pesticides may  be money well spent. Apple seeds are mildly poisonous and a few people have allergies to apples, so take a few precautions when adding an apple a day to your diet.

Obesity:cannabis consumers slimmer.

People who use cannabis are less likely to be obese than those that do not. This intriguing finding was just revealed in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Two large epidemiological studies found far lower rates of obesity and BMI in cannabis consumers versus abstainers.

Such finding are particularly important when obesity threatens human well-being across the planet. Especially in the USA, but also now world wide, this plague of pounds drives degenerative diseases and health care costs. Obesity is a chronic low grade inflammation. Fat cells displace organs and produce cellular toxins. Obesity kills at least one out of eight Americans.

Should cannabis use worsen this obesity problem, it might be an important contraindication for medical cannabis use. Cannabis consumption is, after all, commonly associated with “the munchies.” Medically it is useful in helping those with wasting syndrome gain weight. The cardiometabolic aspects of enhancing the endocannabinoid response be activating CB1 and CB2 receptors do not seem very beneficial. If anything, they seem negative from several cardiometabolic parameters, such as adiponectin levels.

Remember, it was the cannabinoid receptor antagonist, Rimonabant, that was just a few years ago thought to have a major future as an anti-obesity drug.  This “anti-marijuana” was supposed to give you the “anti-munchies.” But human trials showed it also caused an “anti-high”, exhibited by anxiety, depression and suicidal thoughts. It was never approved by the FDA.

The new study, however, shows higher consumption of cannabis with reduced rates of obesity. The authors conclude, “that the prevalence of obesity is lower in cannabis users than in nonusers.” The study was controlled for cigarette smoking. The authors did not speculate by what mechanism cannabis consumers were more free from obesity than people not consuming cannabis.

Generally, the best method to freedom from obesity is to be physically active, walk at least 10,000 steps per day, and maintain a nutritious, calorie-lean diet.